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Welcome to the Allizzo WikiaEdit

EDU 581: Foundations of Special Education in an Inclusionary Setting

Children at Risk and Early InterventionEdit

Introducing Ricky, Cody, and MargaretEdit

Ricky was born to a 16 year old named LaKendra. She dropped out of high school after she gave birth to Ricky. Ricky's father, Ricky Sr. was older than LaKendra and tried to stay involved in little Ricky's life but it seemed difficult. Ricky's parents were not in a relationship when she became pregnant, so Ricky Sr. moved across the state to be with his girlfriend who was finishing college. Little Ricky was left to live with his mother and her cousin Sharon. Often times, LaKendra and Sharon would leave Ricky at home alone while they went to clubs. Ricky had no structure in his life with things like no bedtime, mealtimes, etc. When Ricky was 4 years old, LaKendra's mother called Ricky Sr. to explain to him that the Department of Children and Family Services was going to remove Ricky from LaKendra because someone reported her for leaving Ricky home alone. Ricky Sr. and his wife welcomed little Ricky into their home and enrolled him into a preschool program.

Cody is a 6 year old kindergartener. Two years after adopting Cody, his parents divorced. Cody is being held back from first grade for lacking basic readiness skills such as knowing his numbers, alphabet, address, and phone number. His development seemed to be on target when he was adopted, he was highly verbal and imaginative. Cody's father John lives 2 hours away from here his mother Faith lives. John sees Cody as often as he can and often takes him to enjoy stimulating activities. He has found that Cody loves computer games, but Faith does not allow a computer in their house. Faith cares very little about Cody's academic difficulties and wants him to be a free spirit. John is having Cody tested and are looking for recommendations to help Cody.

Margaret is a 2 year old twin. During her mother Isabella's pregnancy, a sonogram indicated that one baby was not receiving enough blood supply and nutrition, was too small, and probably had abnormal brain ventricular development. After Isabella, her husband, and her mother drove to specialist in the next state, they were faced with a difficult choice. They had to decide whether to terminate the smaller baby, do a laser procedure to seperate the placental blood flowing between the two babies, or do nothing. Isabella and her husband decided choice two was the best option and she went immediately into surgery. Eventually, Isabella gave birth to two healthy babies. Both babies were on oxygen, under lights, and being fed with a tube. Margaret was also receiving physical therapy. The larger baby Lila, developed normally, Margaret did the same thing as Lila, just at a slower pace. At 2 1/2 years of age, Margaret is almost the same size as Lila and developmentally lags behind her less and less.


Ricky is a product of a high school dropout, teenage mother who received no prenatal care and lives in poverty. Ricky can be established as having an environmental risk. Ricky would need many components of an early intervention program. First, he would need to have his basic needs met. He needs to receive proper nutrition, sleep, and adaquate health care. Next, he would need established family stability. Ricky fits into the profile of an at risk child due to his neglect. I would check for any language or communication impairment and any social behavioral skills. A goal for children at risk is prevention. Ricky would be considered at the secondary prevention stage which is reversing any harm. He is now out of harm since his biological father removed him from his mother's care and took him into his own structured home. Some instruction environmental needs that Ricky's family would benefit from are parenting classes, home visits, and support groups. Since Ricky is still at a young age, exposure to vocabualry and phonics skills should aid him in avoiding serious reading difficulties later. A teaching strategy I would use for Ricky would be to make sure his foundational skills such as vocabualry and phonics are up to grade expectations. I would also be aware of his social and behavioral control in the classroom. Because of his former neglect, I would be mindful of his ability to work in a group, play with peers, self confidence, and any peer rejection. Finally, I would make sure that Ricky Sr. would also be very involved in little Ricky's educational process.


Cody is also considered being an environmental risk due to his parents divorce and Cody's father, John living two hours away. Cody currently lives with his mother Faith who is not concerned with Cody lacking basic readiness skills. John wants to have Cody tested, but he is still not receiving the support he needs at home. Cody could also fall under the child neglect category since his mother, Faith, is not willing to provide him with the educational support and special education services that Cody could be offered. One of the most important components of early intervention that Cody should be receiving is an early screening assessment for reading. He could be administered the DIEBELS-5 assessment to evaluate his reading proficiency. Since Cody is repeating kindergarten, any behavioral issues should be monitored and recorded. A teaching strategy I would use for Cody would be to continue practicing his basic readiness skills such as his numbers, the alphabet, his address, and phone number. I would hold a meeting with any Instructional Support staff and administration to possibly have an instructional support member aid Cody in practicing his basic readiness skills. Finally, I would find any educational iPad or computer games to aid with his basic readiness skills since Cody loves computer games and activities. 


Margaret is considered an established medical risk. Due to her medical condition and low birth weight, she can be categorized as at risk for developmental delays. Margaret is often compared to her twin, Lila, since she has been developing normally. Her parents have seen improvement in Margaret both physically and mentally. With any early intervention, Margaret is on the right track. One component for early intervention would be to ensure that the school Margaret attends will be able to continue her physical therapy. As Margaret enters kindergarten she can also be assessed with a DIEBELS-5 assessment to see if she is behind or on target with the rest of the class. Since Margaret is still young, the goal for her at risk is prevention. In order to produce the least amount of delays in Margaret's education, monitoring her development educationally and socially, physical therapy, and parents involvement is crucial.

ADHD & Emotional Behavioral Disorders Graphic Organizer Edit

Below is the link to my graphic organizer. Please copy and paste the link into a new tab or page.


Case Study - Bobby & Andy Edit

Bobby Edit

Bobby is an eighth grade student who has had behavior problems since he was four years old. He occasionally interrupts the class and talks back to his teacher. He can also become very aggressive. Bobby also has difficulty in school and reads below his grade level. This seems to be caused because of his behavior.

Determine two strategies you could use to help support Bobby in each of the following categories:

  • Observation: As a teacher, I prefer doing some informal observation first when I notice something is not right with a student. While observing Bobby, I may be able to see what causes him to act out or what triggers him. While observing him, I could take anecdotal notes. I would be able to look back at my notes throughout the year and refer to them while making lesson plans. Creating lesson plans to help Bobby succeed would hopefully prevent him from acting out as much.
  • Positive Reinforcement: I feel that Bobby would benefit from positive reinforcement. As his teacher, I would sit with Bobby and ask him what he enjoys, likes to do, etc. After knowing what Bobby would work for, I could make a plan with Bobby where if he completes a class assignment or follows directions, he will be rewarded with something of his choice. Most students respond well to positive reinforcement especially when they receive something they enjoy in the end.


  • Direct Instruction: Bobby would benefit from his teachers providing directions before they wanted him to complete any assignments. This way, Bobby knows exactly what is expected of him before he begins the assignment. Something like this could help him not be as stressed while completing assignments. Bobby being stressed while completing assignments could cause his acting out.
  • Reading: During reading instruction, Bobby can be seated closely to the teacher so they are there if he needs assistance. Since Bobby reads significantly below his grade level, he could also be pulled for a Replacement Reading class. Bobby could receive reading instruction at his level (fourth grade) from an instructional support teacher. He would also get his grades from that teacher. If Bobby receives one-on-one or small group reading instruction, he may be able to focus more as well. This could hopefully get Bobby caught up to his classmates as much as possible.

Instructional Environment: 

  • Bobby would benefit from a classroom that had structures rules that applied to every student in the classroom. For example, remaining in your seat, raising your hand to share with the class. The consequences for not following these classroom rules should also be the same for every student in the classroom. Bobby would also benefit from learning in an organized classroom. If he needs something in the classroom, it would put less stress on Bobby if he knew where everything was and would probably cause him to act out less.
  • Since Bobby is below grade expectations especially in reading, he should receive any assignments with accommodations or modifications. He can get assignments assessing the same content, just on his level, so he can also be successful in the classroom along with his peers.

Attendance and Symptoms of Illness:

  • Bobby should be at school daily and on time. Bobby claiming that he is sick so he does not have to complete assignments should not be acceptable. His teacher should recognize Bobby’s behavior before he claims that he is sick so the teacher can stop the behavior before it happens again. The teacher should be communicating with parents when Bobby claims he is sick so the parents can speak with him at home and tell him that these behaviors are unacceptable. Since Bobby is not at expected grade level, it would really be a disservice to him to miss any school time. For when Bobby is feeling ill, his symptoms should be written down. The school nurse should have a record of what symptoms Bobby has when he is really sick. That way when Bobby tries to say he is sick again, the school nurse has a record of his symptoms and can really determine if he is sick enough to go home or not.


  • Group Projects: Bobby does not have many friends in school to socialize with. I think Bobby would benefit from participating in group projects with his classmates. I would also make sure that Bobby participates by having a job or a role in the group project. This would help him socialize with his group and also he could get support from his classmates in completing the project together.
  • Lunch: I think Bobby would benefit from sitting with his classmates at lunch. Even if he does not open up to them right away, good classmates may open up to him and begin conversation which would then lead to a friendship. I would make sure to find some good students who I can trust to sit with him and open up to him.

Determine the supports Bobby's schools must provide to help him transition successfully into adulthood:

I believe that all of these supports mentioned above will help Bobby transition into adulthood. Any services or assistance that Bobby’s last school provided him with should transition into his high school education. This will allow for a smoother transition into high school for Bobby. I also think that Bobby would benefit from an Instructional Support teacher within high school. Even if this teacher is in his or her own room all day, Bobby could check in with the teacher whenever he feels he needs assistance, to talk, or help with an assignment. If Bobby is completing an assignment in class and is struggling, he should be able to take his work to this teacher for help on the assignment. He could even make a schedule with the teacher to meet with them when Bobby knows of any upcoming assignments or projects that need to be completed.

Andy' Edit

Andy is a 10 year old in third grade. He has immature behavior, lack of organization, and inattentiveness. His pediatrician diagnosed Andy with ADHD.

Determine two strategies you could use to help support Andy in each of the following categories:
Instruction for Reading and Math:

  • Reading: Students are usually able to read a story to themselves in the third grade. However, I think Andy would benefit from hearing the story read aloud at times. For example, after having the students read the story to themselves one day, the next day the teacher can choral read the story with the students. The students find this more engaging and it would keep Andy’s attention and help him better understand what they are reading.
  • Math: Allowing Andy to manipulate objects during lessons will keep him more engaged throughout the lesson. When teachers teach and speak from the board the entire lesson, they begin to lose student’s attention and interest.


  • Rewards: Andy should be more willing to complete his homework when there are rewards involved. I would choose something Andy is interested him to have him more willing to work for that.
  • Color Coordinate: I loved using this for one of my students recently. I think Andy would benefit from having each subject a different color to make it easy for him when he leaves school and goes home to do his homework. For example, his math materials are all blue, reading materials are all red, and so on.

Behavior, Attention, Excessive Talking and Following Directions:

  • Medicine: Since Andy was diagnosed with ADHD; he should be on a particular medicine that helps him focus and follow directions. The school nurse and teacher should be aware of when Andy takes his medicine and when he is scheduled to take it again. If Andy comes to school without taking his medicine, the nurse should have consent to provide Andy with his medicine.
  • Behavior Chart: I think making a behavior chart showing how each student did that day would help Andy see how his behavior is comparing to his peers in the classroom. Every student can start off on green, which means they have good behavior. Each student has a clothespin with his or her name on it and whenever they act out or do not follow the class rules, they will clip down to the next color, red being the worst.

Instructional Environment & Organization:

  • Seat Placement: The students in Andy’s class should be seated alone. Because Andy is diagnosed with ADHD, he may be encountering too many distractions if he was sitting in a group.
  • Organization: The classroom Andy is in should be kept as organized as possible. If the teacher is organized, this is a great model for how Andy should handle his materials. The teacher should also help Andy keep his things organized especially when packing up at the end of the day. This way, when he gets home to complete homework, he not overwhelmed because he does not know where something is.

Written Assignments and Tests:

  • Assignments: Andy can handle assignments on his grade level; however, I think directions and instructions should be clearly expressed to Andy. Andy should have directions verbally presented to him and either presented on the board or on his paper for him to be able to refer to throughout the assignment.
  • Tests: Andy should be provided all the time he needs to complete a test. If Andy needs to leave the room, take the test in the hallway, etc. in order to focus and complete the test to the best of his ability, it should be provided.

Determine the supports Andy's schools must provide to help him transition successfully into adulthood:
I think Andy would benefit from having an Instructional Support teacher to support him in the classroom. This teacher can push into the classroom or even pull Andy out when he needs more one-on-one or small group instruction in order to focus. This will help him in the long run understand what is expected of him as he transitions into adulthood.

Case Study - Janetta & David Edit

Janetta Edit

· Identify the major characteristics of students with intellectual disabilities:

According to our textbook, students with intellectual disabilities experience difficulty in learning due to deficits in intellectual functioning and adaptive behavior skills. These students also have an attention problem, meaning they have trouble sticking to the task at hand. They also have trouble holding information for short periods of time.

·  Determine at least two instructional strategies that will help support Janetta in the following areas:

Following Directions: I think when giving directions, it would be helpful to speak to Janetta directly. I would ensure that Janetta has eye contact with me and understands what is expected of her before she completes an assignment. Another strategy that I think would be helpful is to make a list of what needs to be done for the assignment. The teacher can write down each thing that needs to be done and Janetta can check off the items as she complete them.

Making choices: I think Janetta would benefit from choices being read or spoken to her. If they have choices of playing a sport or activity at recess, the teacher can present her with the choices of what she wants to play earlier in day, so that when recess comes, Janetta knows what she is going to play. Another way to help Janetta make choices is to limit the choices she chooses from. If there is a long list of choices to choose from, this could be overwhelming for Janetta. Providing fewer choices for Janetta would benefit her.

Fostering Independence, particularly as it relates to life skills and self-care, such as washing her hands: My classroom has it’s own bathroom. In the bathroom I have a poster showing steps on how to wash your hands after you use the bathroom. The kids actually enjoy following the steps one by one. The poster is something that could remind Janetta on what to do while she is in the bathroom alone. Another strategy could be to have a student be her class buddy. The buddy could show her how to tie her shoes, button her coat, and other life skills that Janetta needs help with in the classroom, especially when the teacher may be busy with other students. This way she is learning life skills and also making a friend.

Reading Readiness: Allowing Janetta to choose her own books to read independently will encourage her to read something she is interested in instead of being told what to read. Another strategy could be to let Janetta listen to the stories that are taught in class. As she listens to the story, she can follow along in the textbook so that she is able to see and hear model reading.

Writing: With students who struggle with writing in my classroom, I like to give them writing paper that has raised lines. This helps the students write on the lines and separate their capital letters from their lowercase letters. Sometimes the paper already has the alphabet at the top of the paper for students to reference. This would be the paper I would provide to Janetta.

Math: I think hands on activities for math could be very helpful. Using different manipulatives or even M&Ms to count could help keep Janetta interested in the lesson. Janetta’s teacher could also create flash cards with numbers on them so Janetta can go home and practice.

·  Explain why the strategies you chose will be effective.  Support your response with research.

I think the strategies mentioned would be very helpful for Janetta. Janetta needs reminders on how to complete some basic activities and assignments in the classroom. I think if Janetta had a buddy in the class to help her to do some basic things, she would learn a lot because she would more likely be open to a fellow friend or classmate helping her instead of possibly and aide assisting her with things such as washing her hands or buttoning her coat.



David Edit

· Identify the key characteristics of students with severe and multiple disabilities:

Characteristics of students with severe and multiple disabilities could have delays in development such as speech and language development. They could also have difficulty learning information that is conceptual. Students with disabilities take longer to learn and understand concept than their peers without disabilities. Also, students with severe and multiple disabilities are not in great health. These students would require additional care during school hours.

· If David were assigned to your classroom, what information would you need to know to support his needs in the following areas:

Academic: Academically, I would need to know what level David is on. I would have to look at his educational background and see what he excelled in and what he struggled in. I think it is important to know his level of understanding in all subject areas. I would also get to know his interests. David likes to use a computer, so I think finding ways for him to learn while using a computer or iPad would be very helpful.

Social and Emotional: I think it is important to see whom David works with best in the classroom. Observing David with other students can help me see whom David could partner with on group projects. It is important that David feels he has friends in the classroom and not feels left out. I would also observe David's behavior throughout certain scenarios in the classroom in order to see if something sets him off or not.

Communication: Since David is nonverbal, it would be important to know how he communicates with me. I would talk with David's past teachers and see what worked for them and I would also meet with David's parents to see if they had a preferred way of me communicating with him.

Medical: I think it would be very beneficial to know the medicine David takes daily. It is important to know if there are severe side effects that I should be aware of so I, as his teacher, know what to be looking for. I would also need to know when David is to take any medication. His parents should inform myself and the schools nurse what times David is to take any medication.

Post-Secondary Transition Planning: I think figuring out what David wants to do after middle school would be helpful so then I know what to help assist with. David wants to live away from home like his older siblings. Therefore, it is important that David knows how to do things independently. Talking with David's parents would also be helpful to see what they want for David as well. If his parents do things at home to help David for post-secondary life after school, as his teacher, I could possible do some of the same things he practices at home so that he is having more repetition in this activities.

·Determine at least two instructional strategies that will support David in the classroom. Explain why the strategies you developed will be effective. Support your responses with research.

In our textbook there were many strategies listed that could help support David in the classroom. The one that I thought fit David well was partial participation. David does not communicate verbally, but that doesn't mean he can't be apart of what everyone else is doing in the classroom. It is important for the teacher to understand and find what David can do to be a part of the class projects and to participate with the other students. I also think behavior chain interruption would be beneficial for David. This could help him for when he is living on his own. Behavior chain interruption strategy is all about sequenced steps. When David moves away from home, he will have to learn many steps on what to do on his own. This could be helpful for him in the future.

Case Study on Autism - Alex Edit

Alex Edit

Key Characteristics of Students Diagnosed with Autism:

·Social Characteristics

-Difficulty with social interaction

-Difficulty establishing relationships with peers

-Decreased facial recognition

-May not make eye contact

-Difficulty maintaining friendships and initiating social interactions

·Communication Characteristics

-Deviations in language development





·Behavioral Characteristics

-Need for routine

-Unusual preoccupation or interest in certain objects or activities/facts

-Abnormal sensory and motor functions

-Repetitive motor movements

·Cognitive Characteristics

-Low IQ

-Difficulties in executive functioning

-Deficits in theory of mind

-Strengths in visual skills

Why is it so important for Mr. Runyon and Ms. Dunn to have ongoing collaboration?

It is crucial that Mr. Runyon and Ms. Dunn continue to have ongoing collaboration because even though Alex has made slow progress, it is still steady progress, which means he is successful in this classroom setting. Mr. Runyon should work closely with Ms. Dunn in order to assist him in using behavior analysis principals and training him in the use of the Picture Exchange Communication System. Because of the importance of collaboration, it is important for special education teachers and general education teachers to have a strong understanding of the foundations of the disorder and of practical ways to support the learning of students with an autism spectrum disorder.

Determine at least two instructional strategies that would be effective for Alex that pertain to the following areas:

·Instructional Content

-Assistive Technology – app, computer program, etc. to use in the classroom so the student can express their communication without frustration

-Modeling – having the student see exactly what is expected of them allows them to be more successful with each task

·Instructional Procedures

-Visual Schedules – these schedules can be presented for the whole class to see or even taped to the desk of the child, this way they know what is coming up next and are comfortable with the routines.

-Direct Instruction – highly structured, step-by-step procedures, with modeling, and guided and independent practice will benefit the student with autism spectrum disorders.

·Instructional Environment– Including Communication

-Transitions – provide a two minute warning so the schedule is not varying without warning

-Visual Charts/Cues – used to help support learning in the classroom. This could be a chart on their desk on what they need to pack up every afternoon to go home.

·Instructional Technology

-iPad – enhanced with sound and video, students with autism can watch a video or use an app to watch how to have a task completed or reinforce a skill they are learning.

-Picture Exchange Communication System – continue using this system for Alex since it has shown to be successful in the past.

·Socialization with his peers, particularly initiating peer interaction

-Classroom Buddy – to help Alex transition within the classroom setting, pack up, button his coat, etc.

-Group projects – give Alex a task he can complete within a group project will encourage social interaction.

Case Study - Robert & Allison Edit

Case Study - Robert

·Identify the main characteristics of students with blindness and visual impairments

oIntellectual Characteristics

-Little or no effect on student’s general intelligence

-Should not consider low vision or blindness as indicative of lowered intelligence

oPlay and Social Interaction Skills

-Can be delayed since they do not have the vision that encourages them to explore the environment

-Cannot examine objects of interest

-Integration with peers without disabilities is key

oLanguage and Concept Development

-Difficulties with pragmatics of language, nonverbal communication signals and skills

-Lack of ability to “read” and learn body language

-Problems associating words with concepts and generating multiple word meanings

oAcademic Achievement

-Be aware that the methods of evaluation may be different

-Braille can be used instead of print for assessments

-With proper supports, students who are blind should be able to succeed in general education classroom

·Determine at least one strategy you could use to increase Roberts’ integration and socialization with his peers. Explain why you chose this strategy and how it will help Robert.

oSince Robert struggles with having peers in his classroom, I would try to encourage his social interaction skills. These skills need to be encouraged at home, school, and in the community. I would have him work with more group projects in the classroom. This way social interaction is constantly encouraged. Robert and his peers would each have a role in the project to complete. Also having a classroom buddy in the classroom that could assist Robert with some tasks would benefit him as well.

·Determine at least one instructional strategy you could use for Robert in each of the following areas:


-Lighting in the classroom can be dimmed to the students’ liking and/or what is comfortable for them to learn in

-Size of print on paper can be made larger on all handouts and assessments

·These strategies will help Robert be more comfortable in the classroom because the environment (lighting) is comfortable to him. Also, the larger print gives him the equal opportunity to succeed in the classroom.


-Since Robert has a partial visual impairment, using programs to magnify computer screen text to make regular print materials accessible

·As mentioned above, having larger print will allow Robert to succeed in the classroom when using iPads, computer programs, or in Technology class.


-Independent Living Skills should still be in Robert’s curriculum. While he knows time management and money management, he could also benefit from learning other skills such as food preparation and organizational skills as well.

·These skills will help Robert in his future. While transitioning into adult life, he will be more successful and be more independent with these skills.


-While teaching I would speak out loud while writing on the board or allow Robert to record my lessons.

·If Robert can record lessons, he can then always refer back to the records when he wants.

Case Study - Allison

·Identify the main characteristics of students diagnosed with deadness and hearing impairments

oIntellectual Characteristics

-Believed that cognitive abilities of deaf people were lower than those of hearing people – proven to be wrong

-Students who are deaf or have hearing impairments have the same cognitive abilities as students who have hearing

oAcademic Characteristics

-Reading and math skills tend to lag behind

oSpeech and Language Characteristics

-Delayed speech

-Language characteristics – they way students communicate, learn from others, and access information to be successful

-Will learn American Sign Language at a young age

oSocial-Emotional Characteristics

-Because deaf students lack language skills it can also affect their social skills in the classroom.

·Determine at least two instructional strategies that could help Allison be successful in the classroom. Explain why you chose those strategies and how they will help Allison.

oUtilized Seating – Allison should be seated near the front of the classroom and should also be able to see her surroundings. If Allison ever needs the special education teacher in the room, the classroom teacher should also take into consideration where they will sit as well.

oClassroom Arrangement – schedules, rules, and directions should always be clearly posted for Allison to refer to.

·Determine two to four areas in which ongoing collaboration between the general and special education teachers is imperative to Allison’s success. Support your response with examples.

oSince Allison’s parents are concerned with Allison’s literacy skills, the general education teacher and special education teacher need to be in constant communication about Allison’s progress and assessment scores to determine if she is remaining successful in the general education classroom.

oAllison also has an IEP, which requires consistent collaboration between both teachers. This will include the speech and language teacher as well. Allison’s goals and her progress needs to be discussed daily.

oTalks with the audiologist need to happen so that the teachers can relay information to Allison’s parents in detail.

Case Studies - Kathleen & Juanita Edit

Kathleen Edit

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